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WASH BASIN

Consider how frequently the bathroom is used, what kind of look you are going for and keep the following questions in mind as you shop to find the perfect fit:

• What style of sink best suits your bathroom?

• What color will fit best with your décor?

• How big does the sink need to be?

• Do you need storage space underneath?

• What materials are available, and what are the advantages of each?

Design Considerations, Styles and Materials:

The frequency with which you use your bathroom will help dictate which type of sink will fit best. Seldom used guest bathrooms, for example, probably won't require as much storage or counter space, so a stylish pedestal sink could be a perfect fit. If you are working with a large master bathroom, you may want to consider installing multiple sinks to make it easier for two people to get ready for work simultaneously in the morning. Choose a material that will wear well, look good and fit within your budget, and select a style that is both easy to clean and attractive.

Color, Shape and Size:

Choosing a color for your new sink will depend on the surrounding decor, whether you wish the sink to blend in or stand out and your personal preferences. Available shapes include round, oval, rectangle and asymmetrical designs. Some sinks are specially designed to fit into corners while others work better out in the open. If you need storage room, install a vanity-mounted sink. If you are installing the sink in a smaller bathroom and want to conserve floor space, choose a pedestal or wall-hung sink.

• Colors range from muted earth tones to bold, bright blues and greens

• Deeper sinks minimize the chances of water splashing back out

• Choose the largest sink you have room for to maximize available space

• 34-inches is a typical installation height

Pedestal, Vessel and Wall-Hung Sinks:

In smaller bathrooms, powder rooms or guest bathrooms, pedestal, vessel and wall-hung sinks can provide style without taking up a lot of floor space. Because they do not provide storage room, however, they may not work well in large or frequently used bathrooms. Be sure that the faucet spout is long enough to reach the bowl and bear in mind that freestanding sinks don't usually have an overflow hole and must be fitted with a grid drain. Vessel sinks, also called countertop sinks, sit directly on a counter and make a bold design statement. Faucets are often wall-mounted above a vessel sink.

• Wall-hung sinks can easily accommodate wheelchairs

• Pedestal sinks offer a range of styles from Victorian to contemporary

• Pedestal sinks may require a larger up-front investment

• Choose a toilet to complement a pedestal sink's stylized leg

• Make sure a countertop sink doesn't sit up too high

Vanity-Mounted Sinks:

If you need storage space for toilet paper, cleaning products and more, a vanity-mounted sink is the perfect choice. They do require more floor space, so you may want to install them in larger bathrooms. There are a number of styles available, which makes it easy to choose one that best suits your bathroom. Self-rimming sinks are dropped into a hole in the countertop and are easy to install, though the rim joint can be difficult to keep clean. Integral sinks are molded from the same material as the counter, usually a solid-surface material. They are stylish and easy to install and clean, though you may need to replace the entire unit if either the sink or counter gets damaged. Integral sinks are often oval or round, but they may be rectangular or even trough-shaped.

• Self-rimming sinks sit just above counter level and can be matched to the faucet

• Self-rimming sinks may be more difficult to install and keep clean

• Under-mounted sinks have a low profile and emphasize the look of the countertop

• Countertops must be completely waterproof if you install an under-mounted sink

• Flush-mounted sinks are used with tile counters and have square edges equal in thickness to the tiles, allowing them to sit flush with the countertop

Materials:

Most sinks are available in a wide range of materials, though some styles, such as under-mounted sinks, can only be made from certain materials.Use the chart below to learn more about some of the more commonly used materials:

Jaquar wash basin installation

WATER CLOSETS

Before shopping for a new toilet, familiarize yourself with the latest advances that help the environment by saving water. You will also save money on water and sewer bills.

The first decision you may need to consider is how much flush power you will need. Finding a toilet that flushes efficiently without clogging is essential. To help make your decision easier, The Home Depot utilizes a flush performance rating system that assigns each of our toilets a numerical score based on the toilet's ability to remove bulk waste and resist clogging.

The next decision you may need to consider is how much available space you have in your bathroom. If you have a larger bathroom where space isn't much of an issue, a toilet with an elongated bowl will work great. If you have a smaller bathroom, such as a half-bath, choose a round bowl toilet that will fit into tight spaces.

Next, determine the appropriate height for your toilet. Standard sizes are 14 or 15inches, but the 16 or 17-inch models are becoming increasingly popular, especially for taller or physically challenged individuals.

Water Saving Toilets:

Toilets are the main source of water use in the home, accounting for nearly 30% of an average home's indoor water consumption. New flushing technology across various toilets has enabled water conservation without sacrificing flush performance.

Design:

Two-Piece Tank and bowl are separate

Most common type.

Generally more economical.

Easy to find replacement parts .

One-Piece Tank and bowl fused together into a seamless unit :

May require larger upfront investment.

Save space.

No hard-to-clean crevices.

Creates a sleek, stylish look .

Wall Mounted Mounts to wall and eliminates need for toilet foot or base:

May cost more to purchase and install.

Ideal for transfers from wheelchair or Walker.

Requires thicker wall for mounting.

Drain for toilet must be on wall rather than floor.

Easy to clean underneath

Style:

With a wide range of styles and colors to choose from, selecting a toilet that matches the decor in your bathroom is simple and easy. Whether you prefer traditional or contemporary design, our extensive selection makes it easy for you to reflect on your own personal style.

Rough-In:

The distance between the floor drain and the wall, called the rough-in, is one factor to consider when selecting your toilet. The standard distance is 12 inches and 10 or 14 inches are occasionally found in older homes. You can determine the rough-in on an existing toilet by measuring from the wall behind the toilet to the middle of the bolts on the base.

Toilet Seats:

Consider upgrading your new or existing toilet with a new toilet seat with features including slow or quiet close and easy cleaning. Seats specially designed for children have smaller openings and side handles providing extra comfort and support.

Save water by upgrading Toilet

How to fix a leaking toilet

jaquar i flush

Jaquar wall hung closet

Roca concealed tank

Concealed cistern for wall hung

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FAUCTES

Any device for controlling the flow of liquid from a pipe or the like by opening or closing an orifice; tap; cock.

Faucet’s basic function is to dispense hot and cold water for washing dishes, food and hands. But beyond that it’s a major player in defining the style of your kitchen design.

Basin-mounted faucets: There are many different types of faucets and Basin designs, but they are not always compatible. If you are working with an existing basin, check how many mounting holes it has. New faucets come in one-, two-, three- or four-hole varieties.

Deck-mounted faucets: With these the faucet mounts directly to the countertop and not the basin. If you are installing an under mount basin, you have the option of mounting the faucet directly on the countertop. When installing a deck-mounted faucet, make sure to allow more than a finger’s width behind the faucet for cleaning.

Pros: Deck-mounted faucets provide a seamless look that’s especially well suited to contemporary Bathrooms (but they come in all styles).

Cons: They occupy space on the countertop. Also, you may find an accumulation of water, dirt and grime between the faucet and the wall.

Wall-mounted faucets: Take care when placing a wall-mounted faucet to make sure it will work together with your basin. The distance the water spout projects will determine whether the two will be compatible. Pros: Countertop cleanup is a breeze.

Cons: You’ll need to take extra care in colder climates

Handle Options:

Single-handled faucets: A single-handled faucet rotates directionally, usually providing the ability to regulate flow with an up-and-down motion and temperature with a side-to-side motion.

Pros: Along with the advantage of requiring only one hole in your countertop, these are really convenient for when you have only one hand free. They often feature high arching pro-style designs that easily accommodate large pots and vessels in the sink.

Cons: Temperature adjustment is less precise than with a two-handled faucet.

Double-handled faucets: These usually require a minimum of three holes for installation. The wide variety of handle options makes this kitchen faucet design more customizable.

Pros: Two-handled faucets have dedicated hot and cold water handles, allowing for more sensitive adjustments to water temperature as well as flow rate. Also, if one of the handles springs a leak, you can turn off the shut-off valve to the leaking handle and still use the faucet until you fix the leaking handle. Most allow you to change the handles and faucet independently from the plumbing, making for easy style changes.

Cons: It is more inconvenient to adjust two separate knobs when hands are full or dirty. Also, these faucets are typically considered to be more traditional and may limit you style-wise.

Hands-free faucets: This great hands-free option is activated by a sensor. Notice the handle at the side, which allows you to adjust the temperature and flow rate. Pros: No hands! These versions operate with a sensor that detects light contact (some are activated by motion) that opens the valve. They are great for arthritic hands and children. They have the advantage of shutting off automatically to conserve water. Plus, you won’t ever worry about an overflowing sink. Cons: There is no way to adjust the temperature or the water flow through the touch mode. That has to be done manually, and some people find it aggravating. Also, these faucets require an occasional battery change for the sensor to work.

Materials and Finishes:

Chrome, nickel, brushed nickel, polished brass, oil-rubbed bronze, white, black and stainless steel are some of the standard finishes and colors. Keep in mind that finishes from different manufacturers may not be exactly the same.

Grohe divertor

3 way diverter

Jaquar faucets water saving

Roca electronic faucets

SHOWERS

Transform your shower by combining components to match virtually any budget. Upgrade to a multi-functional showerhead. For a fuller experience, add sprays and jets that make more use of your existing water lines. Or completely transform your shower into a spa-like retreat.

Get More from Your Showerhead :

One of the most cost-effective ways to instantly upgrade your shower experience is to install a new showerhead. You’ll find a wide range of showerhead designs that can transform your shower experience, from comforting rain showers to invigorating dual-head sprays..

Adjustable showerheads change spray patterns easily to suit your mood with a variety of settings.

Hand showers are ideal for washing children and pets and make cleaning the shower easier.

Overhead showers can be up to 12-inches wide and deliver a relaxing cascade of water directly from above

Take Your Shower to the Next Level:

Tower showers combine valves, body sprays, handheld sprays and water jets into a complete, multi-angle high-performance shower.

Simply adjust the angles on high and low sprays to experience a different shower experience every day.

Jaquar shower enclosures

Jaquar self cleaning showers

Roca shower installation

Single lever concealed shower

WELLNESS

A bathtub is a large container for holding water in which a person may bathe. Modern bathtubs have overflow and waste drains and may have taps mounted on them. They are usually built-in, but may be free-standing or sometimes sunken. Until recently, most bathtubs were roughly rectangular in shape but with the advent of acrylic thermoformed baths, more shapes are becoming available. Bathtubs are commonly white in colour although many other colours can be found.

Bathtubs are very important when designing a bathroom, since they require a large space and are a focal point of the room. The main point is the available space in a bathroom. Bathtubs take a lot of room away and freestanding bathtubs will only shine if there is even more free space around them.

A large manufacturer base offers choices ranging from classic corner bathtubs to freestanding bathtubs in contemporary design. Most of the manufactures offer all standard-shaped bathtubs in different series. This allows designers to purchase a large tub for a spacious master bathroom and a smaller version for the guest bathrooms. With such variety, design options are endless. Size and Shape

The average height of a bathtub is around 55 cm (22″), although it can be also be located in the floor (in-ground versions). Bathtubs start from 140 cm (55″) and go up to 200 cm (78″) in length. A common size is 160 cm (60”), which is used in most residential bathrooms. Special bathtubs are available for compact bathrooms – bathtubs are available with a length of 140cm x 140cm (4´7.1”) to start with. Smaller bathtubs are practical but will not be as comfortable as larger ones. All freestanding, wall or specially platform bathtubs are mainly in square, oval and circular shapes available. Combinations with water-jets or air-jets increase the comfort significantly.

Materials and Features

Bathtub materials can vary from enamel, wood, glass, cast iron, stone, copper, and acrylic, the most common material. White is the most common color. The material is a choice of appearance and comfort level. Quality is generally high with today’s choices. Nevertheless, major luxury hotel groups use only enameled steel bathtubs.

Take material and comfort level into consideration for unusually-shaped tubs. Acrylic (plastic) bathtubs can be produced with a much wider design range compared to more rigid materials. A bathtub requires warm and cold water connections and has one drainage outlet. The faucets can be positioned as concealed, exposed or freestanding high spout mixers.

Types

Square Bathtubs

Prefabricated square bathtubs, including sidewalls, are very practical. They are easy to clean, durable and water-sealed. They are mainly produced out of one mold, which keeps costs under control.

A square design has one clear advantage – it can be placed on walls and in corners. Therefore, it is the most popular choice in bathrooms. It also goes well with bathroom tiles, which are square-shaped.

Corner Bathtubs

Corner bathtubs are common too, and a perfect solution for freeing up space. A corner tub has much more water volume and provides a third place to relax with its wedge shape. Corner bathtubs can also help when designing a compact space, like a guest bathroom.

Platform Bathtubs

Platform bathtubs are one of the most interesting ways to design. A floor-to-top height of 11.2” (30cm) looks very luxurious and provides comfort when stepping in and out of the tub. The only challenge is the required space underneath, which should be taken into consideration. Circular bathtubs draw the focus on the true essentials of design and can make the washing area an elegant center piece. A round bathtub is hard to top as far as design is concerned

WATER TANKS

Plastic Water Tanks are manufactured from Food Grade FDA approved Virgin Polyethylene Poly Resins.

Plastic water tanks are utilized in a wide range of industries, such as the agricultural, oil and gas, water, waste treatment, medical, scientific, and pharmaceutical industries, over metallic water tanks.

In addition, water tanks are often used for applications such as storing drinking water for residential and commercial installations as well as storing rain water. They are also commonly used for applications such as fire protection, water treatment, agricultural irrigation, and other water-related purposes.

However, plastic water tanks offer some disadvantages including low fire-resistance and high heat-absorbance, which can affect the temperature of the stored water.

CPVC PIPES

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe is a building material used in domestic water systems and industrial applications. It is made from polymers infused with chlorine gas through a thermal reaction. Along with other plastic materials like PVC and PVF, CPVC is one of the most widely used piping materials in the world. It is quickly replacing traditional steel pipes due to its low cost and high strength.

Advantages:

1. This yellowish plastic polymer was invented to handle the higher temperatures that regular PVC could not.

2. It also is slightly stronger than standard PVC.

3. It is generally a stable compound and will not corrode as easily as copper pipes can.

4. CPVC also requires about 25% less time to install than copper does (though it does require more bracing).

Disadvantage:

1. The disadvantages of CPVC include that it is brittle and it can't withstand very high temperatures like copper can.

2. It's high thermal expansion coefficient may not be the best choice for climates that experience wide variations in temperature.

3. CPVC typically costs about twice as much as standard PVC does.

SWR Pipes

Soil, Waste & Rain Water (S.W.R.) uPVC Drainage Systems are the ideal solution for drainage & sewerage applications, owing to its superior properties compared to conventional drainage systems.

Application:

SWR uPVC Drainage Systems is a set of pipes and fittings used in excreta lines of Residential and Commercial complexes. Type B pipes are specifically used for Hi-Rise Buildings..

They are generally used for: Soil / Waste Lines are connected to various excreta generation points such as lavatories (Basins, commodes etc.) and kitchens (sinks etc.) for smooth transportation of soluble and insoluble waste along with water to main drain lines..

Rain Lines connected to gulleys, gutters on roof tops for drainage of excess rain water..

FEATURES:

Lightweight :

Convenient and cost effective as transportation & handling is easy.

Flexibility in usage :

Possible due to option of joining either by rubber ring or with solvent cement.

High Flow Rate :

Excellent flow properties that remains constant throughout its life, possible due to the internal smooth surface.

Weather Resistant :

Excellent outdoor weathering performance due to specially blended UV stabilised compound.

Aesthetic Superiority:

Far superior when compared to conventional CI and AC systems.

Performance :

Trouble-free functioning saves on inspection & maintenance costs. A combination of lightness, flexibility & use of pre-fabrication results in substantial savings in time and money.

High Impact Strength :

Not prone to mechanical damages due to handling and transportation.

Chemical Resistance :

Unaffected by a wide range of chemicals & safe from attacks by galvanic or electrolytic action.

Non-Flammable :

Self-extinguishing as it does not support combustion.

Corrosion Resistant :

Constant contact with water does not deteriorate the material.

Rodent Repellent :

Special treatment at compounding stage ensures that the product is immuned to rodent attacks.

SINKS

Stainless Steel:

Stainless steel sinks are among the most popular on the market, 70% of all sinks are made using stainless steel. Steel tends to be inexpensive.The versatility of stainless means that stainless steel sinks are available in a variety of installation types (undermount, top mount, etc). Stainless steel is classified in terms of gauge. Lower gauge steel is heavier, higher gauge is lighter. Most sinks fall within the 15 to 24 gauge range, and the majority of residential sinks are usually between 18 and 22. Stainless steel tends to be a louder than other materials, although many sinks feature a spray coating or padding to help reduce the noise. While overall very durable, stainless steel kitchen sinks can scratch more easily than other materials. Stainless sinks also tend to show water spots more clearly, and it can be difficult to keep them looking immaculately clean at all times. However, they offer excellent resistance to heat and stains

Composite:

When people talk about composite kitchen sinks, they’re usually talking about a granite or quartz composite. Composite sinks are made by combining crushed granite or quartz with a resin filler. The mixture varies depending on the product and manufacturer, but it’s usually around 70%-80% rock and 20%-30% resin. This combination produces a material that has many of the same aesthetic qualities of real granite or quartz without the maintenance and durability issues associated with those types of sinks. Both varieties of composite sinks are tough and highly resistant to stains and scratching, but as a general rule granite tends to hold up better than quartz. In fact, some manufacturers claim that granite composite sinks are the most durable and long-lasting sinks available.

Granite Sink:

Granite sinks are worth investing in for adding beauty and style. These sinks are available in a variety of different functions ranging from the striking bathroom sink to the beautiful kitchen sink and more. Bar sinks, kitchen and even as a bathroom sink, granite makes the ideal choice. It is beautiful and is very durable. It is one of a kind and strikingly dramatic in any room it is placed it. It is the right sink for your home, in any room you decide to place it.

FAUCETS

Any device for controlling the flow of liquid from a pipe or the like by opening or closing an orifice; tap; cock.

Faucet’s basic function is to dispense hot and cold water for washing dishes, food and hands. But beyond that it’s a major player in defining the style of your kitchen design.

Basin-mounted faucets: There are many different types of faucets and Basin designs, but they are not always compatible. If you are working with an existing basin, check how many mounting holes it has. New faucets come in one-, two-, three- or four-hole varieties.

Deck-mounted faucets: With these the faucet mounts directly to the countertop and not the basin. If you are installing an under mount basin, you have the option of mounting the faucet directly on the countertop. When installing a deck-mounted faucet, make sure to allow more than a finger’s width behind the faucet for cleaning.

Pros: Deck-mounted faucets provide a seamless look that’s especially well suited to contemporary Bathrooms (but they come in all styles).

Cons: They occupy space on the countertop. Also, you may find an accumulation of water, dirt and grime between the faucet and the wall.

Wall-mounted faucets: Take care when placing a wall-mounted faucet to make sure it will work together with your basin. The distance the water spout projects will determine whether the two will be compatible. Pros: Countertop cleanup is a breeze.

Cons: You’ll need to take extra care in colder climates

Handle Options:

Single-handled faucets: A single-handled faucet rotates directionally, usually providing the ability to regulate flow with an up-and-down motion and temperature with a side-to-side motion.

Pros: Along with the advantage of requiring only one hole in your countertop, these are really convenient for when you have only one hand free. They often feature high arching pro-style designs that easily accommodate large pots and vessels in the sink.

Cons: Temperature adjustment is less precise than with a two-handled faucet.

Double-handled faucets: These usually require a minimum of three holes for installation. The wide variety of handle options makes this kitchen faucet design more customizable.

Pros: Two-handled faucets have dedicated hot and cold water handles, allowing for more sensitive adjustments to water temperature as well as flow rate. Also, if one of the handles springs a leak, you can turn off the shut-off valve to the leaking handle and still use the faucet until you fix the leaking handle. Most allow you to change the handles and faucet independently from the plumbing, making for easy style changes.

Cons: It is more inconvenient to adjust two separate knobs when hands are full or dirty. Also, these faucets are typically considered to be more traditional and may limit you style-wise.

Hands-free faucets: This great hands-free option is activated by a sensor. Notice the handle at the side, which allows you to adjust the temperature and flow rate. Pros: No hands! These versions operate with a sensor that detects light contact (some are activated by motion) that opens the valve. They are great for arthritic hands and children. They have the advantage of shutting off automatically to conserve water. Plus, you won’t ever worry about an overflowing sink. Cons: There is no way to adjust the temperature or the water flow through the touch mode. That has to be done manually, and some people find it aggravating. Also, these faucets require an occasional battery change for the sensor to work.

Materials and Finishes:

Chrome, nickel, brushed nickel, polished brass, oil-rubbed bronze, white, black and stainless steel are some of the standard finishes and colors. Keep in mind that finishes from different manufacturers may not be exactly the same.

Grohe divertor

3 way diverter

Jaquar faucets water saving

Roca electronic faucets

CHIMNEY

Chimneys of today are modern and stylish apart from providing a safety to your kitchen chimney have become a fad. People install chimneys according to their necessity choice, chimney is a great way to enhance the beauty of kitchen and a best way to keep your kitchen clean. They are best way to keep your kitchen rid of all oil soot and dirt which may spoil your walls. Chimneys are also the best way to keep the unwanted guest ‘rodents’ out of the house.

Types of chimney:

Today our market is well-off with different kinds of chimneys which you can avail.

Basically two types of chimneys are there Baffle and Metal grease filter one.

Both the chimneys work in different way as for Indian kitchens styles and cooking, baffle filters is better option than the metal grease filters.

Baffle filters are said to be good option due to its overlapped filters which suck the grease out with maximum capacity.

On the other hand metal grease filters have large slots which suck the grease in a proportionate manner.

Baffle filters are easy to maintain and clean because of they are screw tight which can be easily opened without any external help and can be washed using detergent or soap.

Apart from these two categorization chimneys are installed on the basis of suction power. The higher the suction power of the chimney, the better is the chimney.

Before you buy:

According to experts it is recommended that one needs to go by four thumb rules before buying Size of family.

Style of kitchen (whether open or not).

Consumption of oil.

Budget.

Expert Suggest that apart from basic pointers we should also be aware of a few technical properties:

Auto-cleaning facility which implies zero or least maintenance.

Motor should be sealed so that it doesn’t allow dust or smoke to get in.

Detachable oil collector to collect oil particle.

Minimum noise level.

Maximum suction power.

Filter-less chimney to avoid regular scrubbing.

Trend of electric chimneys:

Electric chimney The vogue of electric chimneys has been getting large day by day as they are better than any other chimneys and exhaust fan. Electric chimneys are in all way better than exhaust fans as they only removes the fumes from kitchen but not before it goes into your eyes.

HOBS

Kitchen hobs or cooktops have become an important modular kitchen accessory. Similar to other kitchen appliances, you can find enormous choices in kitchen hobs available in the market. Choose the kitchen hob depending on your cooking preferences and budget.

Things to Remember Before Choosing a Kitchen Hob

1. Decide on the Type:

There are various types of kitchen hobs available like gas, electric and induction hobs. If you prefer electric appliances, then you can opt for an induction cooktop or hob.

2. Consider the Quality:

It is better to buy the best quality kitchen hob you can afford. For instance, a cheaper gas hob will have flimsy enameled supports, whereas, a better quality hob will have cast iron lining. Decide on which looks better, and is more durable and long lasting.

3. Size of the Hob:

It is always advisable to get the hob that fits in the area of your kitchen. Get a size of kitchen hob that will handle your needs like griddle, burners, fish kettle, etc.

4. Flame Guard:

If you are choosing the gas stove, consider the flame guard on gas hobs. There are many flame guards that automatically switches the gas off if the flame gets blown out.

5. Consider the Style:

Hobs have become a style point in modern kitchens and are available in various colors, stainless steel and many other interesting designs. You can opt for wide versions, multi-fuels (electric and gas) and 5 or 6 rings that offer flexibility by considering their use before buying. It is very essential that you consider the benefits of the freestanding range and the on-bench hob.

6. Consider the Family:

If you cook for a large family, it is better that you opt for 4 rings hobs. A family with young children should pay a little extra for a hob guard which has automatic re-ignition or cut off system that protect you against the flame blowing out.

Choosing a kitchen hob that has optimum quality, reliable performance and which is long lasting is advisable.

CABLES & WIRES

Depending on the nature of application, different types of Cables can be used. Cables are majorly categorized on the basis of their make. For instance, there are single-conductor cables as well as multi-conductor cables that find application in different circumstances.

Different types of Cables:

Aluminum Cables:

Aluminum Cables are a type of Electrical Cable that is extensively used. These types of Cables are known for high electrical conductivity. The Aluminum Cables are ductile, light weight, non-magnetic and can be used for several heavy-duty applications. Furthermore, the silver-white metal of Aluminum Cables is reflective to heat and can be recycled also. The application areas of these types of cables include electric lights, telephone lines, and motors..

Copper Cables:

Copper Cables are a widely used Electrical Cable that are utilized in a number of industrial segments, the major ones being mining, electronics, transportation, and telecommunication. The Copper Cables specifically used in telecommunication sector are known as Telecommunication Cables. Just like the Aluminum Cables, Copper Cables have high electrical conductivity and are ductile, lightweight and flexible. Largely, the Copper Cables find application in microwave ovens, integrated circuits, electromagnets, electrical bus bars, electrical switches, etc..

Industrial Cables:

Industrial Cables are especially designed to withstand extreme temperatures and find application in sectors such as chemical plants, oil refineries, aviation, pharmaceutical companies, etc. The Industrial Cables offer great resistance to oil, grease, chemicals, & flames, etc. Some commonly used types of Industrial Cables include Coaxial Cables, Armored Shielded Instrumentation Cables, Control Cables and several other Industrial Power Cables..

Fiber Optical Cables:

Fiber Optical Cables are made of one or more translucent fibers which are sheathed in a protective jacket. These types of Cables can be categorized as Simplex Fiber Optical Cables, Duplex Fiber Optical Cables and Multi-Fiber Optical Cables. The Simplex Fiber Optical Cables have one optical fiber. Similarly, the Duplex Cables have two optical fibers and the Multi-Fiber Cables have several optical fibers. Fiber Optic Cables are mainly used in telecommunications and computer networks..

WIRES

Electrical wire is used to carry electric current from the power source to the end user device, like an outlet or light. This wire is really a conductor, but is referred to as wire in most instances.

There are three different styles of wire. Bare wire is just what the name states, non-insulated. Insulated solid wire it a solid piece of wire that is coated and encased in a plastic coating. The last is insulated stranded wire.

This has many smaller sized strands of copper and is also wrapped in a protective plastic coating. Type NM cable, as it is often referred to, is sold in precut lengths like 50', 100', 250', and 1,000' spools.

There are two different types of cables that are commonly used. Nonmetallic sheathed cable has two or more insulated conductors and usually a bare ground wire. They are all wrapped in an outer protective plastic sheath. The other is armored cable in which there is a black, red, white and green insulated wire inside of a protective flexible metal housing, often called a cord. Usually, armored cable is cut to length, but you may buy a precut length roll.

LIGHTING

What kinds of bulbs are available?

We've all gotten to know incandescents quite well over the past 135 years or so, but times are changing. These days, you've got some new lighting categories to familiarize yourself with, and doing so is the first, most obvious step toward buying the right bulb.

LEDs:

Light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, are the new rock stars of the bulb world. When an LED is switched on, electrons and electron holes come together (don't worry, I'm not completely sure I fully understand what a " hole" is in this context, either). The result of this process is a release of energy in the form of photons, or light.

LED Bulbs

• Have an exceptionally long lifespan. They can last up to three times longer than compact fluorescent, or CFL, bulbs, and 20 times longer than traditional incandescent. A typical LED light that burns three hours a day can last about 22 years before it needs changing, making LED bulbs an ideal choice for hard-to-reach lights.

• Have no filament or moving parts, making them extremely durable and low-maintenance.

• Generate almost no heat or UV rays, which can help reduce air conditioning costs in your home and help keep fabrics and furnishings from fading.

• Save energy as they are up to 85 percent more energy efficient than incandescent bulbs and 10 percent more efficient than CFL bulbs.

While LED household lighting may require a higher initial investment, their longevity, low maintenance and significant cost savings make LED bulbs a purchase that can pay for itself over time.

LED Light Bulbs Made Easy

1. Select Shape

• Spotlights for track lighting

• Floods for outdoor and recessed lights

• LED candles for wall sconces and decorative fixtures

• A-line bulbs for room lighting and lamps

2. Choose Brightness and Energy Efficiency

• Look for bulbs with high lumens and low wattage for the best energy cost savings

• Divide the lumens by the wattage to determine the best brightness-to-energy usage ratio

3. Choose Color Temperature

• Soft light for indoor applications and small areas

• Bright light for outdoor lighting and indoor task lighting

4. Match Fixture Base

• Screw-in bases include miniature candelabra, candelabra, intermediate and medium

• Pin bases typically have two pins, such as those used for many halogen lights

CFLs:

Before LEDs exploded into the lighting scene, compact fluorescent lights (CFLs to you and me) were seen by many as the heir apparent to incandescent lighting. Despite the fact that CFLs use between one-fifth and one-third the energy of incandescents, and typically save one to five times their purchase price over the course of their lifetime, many people weren't thrilled at the idea of switching over. Some find the whitish light output of CFL bulbs less aesthetically pleasing than the warm, yellow tone of most incandescents. Others are quick to point out that CFL bulbs that regularly get powered on and off for short periods of time tend to see a significant decrease in life expectancy. There's also the common complaint that most CFLs aren't dimmable, and that they often take a second or two after being switched on to fully light up.

Aren't CFL bulbs dangerous?

Like all fluorescents, CFLs contain trace amounts of mercury -- typically 3 to 5 milligrams (mg), although some contain less. This creates the potential for pollution when CFL bulbs are improperly disposed of, something that led to a unique environmental argument against the phasing out of incandescents (although, to be fair, this was before LEDs were seen as such a viable option).

What information should I be looking for?

You want to be sure that you'll enjoy living with whatever light bulb you purchase, especially if you're choosing a long-lasting bulb that you'll live with for years. Fortunately, the Federal Trade Commission now requires light bulb manufacturers to put a "Lighting Facts" label onto their products' packaging, not unlike the Nutrition Facts label that you'll find on packaged food.

These Lighting Facts include everything from the estimated yearly cost of using the bulb to more obscure figures, like lumens and color temperature. If you want to shop smart, it will help to understand as much of that terminology as you can.

Lumens

If you're buying a bulb these days, you'll be left in the dark if you don't know what a lumen is. The actual definition gets a bit complicated, involving things like steradians and candela, but don't worry, because all that you really need to know is that lumens are units of brightness. The more lumens a bulb boasts, the brighter it will be. So, how does this information help you?

Let me give you an example. If you look at CFL or LED bulbs, you'll see that most all of them are marketed as "replacements" for incandescent bulbs of specific wattages. You'll probably see the word "equivalent" used, too, as in "60-watt equivalent." This can be frustratingly misleading, with "equivalent" often meaning something closer to "equivalent...ish."

Relying on these wattage equivalencies can lead you to buy a bulb that ends up being far too dim or too bright for your needs, and this is where understanding lumens really comes in handy. With lumens listed on each and every bulb, you'll always have a concrete comparison of how bright any two bulbs actually are. The bigger the number, the brighter the bulb -- easy enough, right?

How many lumens do I need?

Over the last century, we've been trained to think about light purely in terms of wattages, so it isn't surprising that most people really have no idea of how many lumens they actually need in a bulb. Until you form an idea of how bright is bright enough for your tastes, stick with these figures:

Replacing a 40W bulb: look for at least 450 lumens

Replacing a 60W bulb: look for at least 800 lumens

Replacing a 75W bulb: look for at least 1,100 lumens

Replacing a 100W bulb: look for at least 1,600 lumens.

VITRIFIED TILE

Vitrified tile is a ceramic tile with very low porosity. It is an alternative to marble and granite flooring. Vitrified tiles are often used outdoors ( matt finish ) and indoors due to their water and frost resistance. these are made by hydraulic pressing a mixture of clay, quart, feldspar and silica, which make vitreous surface. Thus creating a single mass making them hard.

Double charge vitrified tiles are fed through a press that prints the pattern with a double layer of pigment, 3 to 4 mm thicker than other types of tile. This process does not permit complex patterns but results in a long-wearing tile surface, suitable for heavy traffic commercial projects.

Full body vitrified tiles have pigment in entire body (thickness) of the tile. This makes chips and scratches less noticeable and make this an ideal choice for high traffic zones, but the process significantly increases the cost.

Glazed vitrified tiles (GVT) have a glazed surface. They offer a wide variety of design, art work and surface textures like wood grain, bamboo, slate or stone. This is also an expensive process, but the cost is dropping as digital printing techniques are introduced.

About Vitrified Tiles

Vitrified tiles are used for flooring in modern architecture. Vitrified tile flooring is commonly used for houses, offices, studios, parks, places of worship and in many other building structures. Vitrified tiles are a type of ceramic tile but it is not only made up of clay but also with plastic, silica, quarts and feldspar. Vitrified tile flooring is an alternate to marble and granite flooring. It gives a glossy look to the floor and it is used widely all over the world as flooring tiles.

Advantages of Vitrified Tiles

• Vitrified tiles are smooth, glossy and stronger ..

• Vitrified tile flooring is easy to fix and can be used within 2 days..

• Vitrified tiles have fewer pores to absorb water and so they are more water resistant when compared to ceramic tiles..

• Ceramic tiles will crack easily as the water enters inside them and gets stagnated making the tile surface fragile but in vitrified tiles water rarely penetrates..

• these tiles will best fit the flooring in wet areas as they are moisture resistant.( matt finish ).

• Vitrified tile flooring will serve as a scratch resistant flooring.

Trends:

Because of recent advances in high definition printing technology, digital prints can be printed directly on to tile to create beautiful patterns with maximum resolution and unique gray scale shade calibration that enables the pattern to be printed all the way through the tile for a sharp, clear appearance. These new tile designs enable homeowners to choose tile that expresses their own personal decorating tastes that feature any number of colors, shapes, textures, finishes and trims for a unique look in any room. Key trends include wood-look tile and mixed elements. To see more trends, visit our Tilescapes page.

Applications:

The latest tile trends include using larger size tiles, such as 12 x 24, 18 x 36, 36 x 36 and some up to 48 inches with narrower grout lines. New longer plank tiles, 6 x 24 and 6 x 36 inches, allow for unique designs and patterns throughout the room.

How to choose Flooring

WOODEN TIELS

Laminate Flooring Delivers the Look of Wood for Less:

When shopping for new flooring, don’t forget to consider your household’s needs in addition to style, design and budget. Laminate flooring offers all of the beauty of traditional hardwood, stone and tile floors with the added benefit of high durability and easy installation and maintenance. If you have a high-traffic household with kids or pets or if you entertain frequently, laminate may be the best choice for you. With a wide variety of options to consider, you’re sure to find a perfect fit for any room at a fraction of the price of traditional flooring.

Installation is fast and simple with no need for glue or drying time. Laminate planks can be removed easily to change styles or even move with you and repairs are seamless. Even planks in the middle of the room can be removed and replaced with the right tools. Small nicks and scratches are easily covered with simple laminate finishing putty. Cleaning couldn’t be easier with these stain resistant floors. A damp mop or duster will take care of everyday cleaning and laminate cleaners are available for any spot cleaning needed. No wet mopping or waxing is ever needed.

Types and Materials: Tips to construct a floor

Many laminates look just like real hardwood, marble and stone but also have realistic textures that mimic the feel as well. Laminates are also made to look like tile but without the worry of cracking, cleaning grout and other complications that come with traditional tiling methods. And just like tile or stone, you can piece them together to create decorative pattern. Choose from a variety of wood appearances, including pine, maple, cherry, oak and more

Hardwood Floors:

The beauty of natural hardwood floors never goes out of style. They offer a durable, solid surface suited to any room in your home. While hardwood floors have been around for centuries, much has changed in recent years. New finishes, better construction and a wider variety of available sizes and materials have made them more luxurious, functional and affordable than ever. With so many options to choose from, you’ll want to carefully consider your needs before you buy. The following questions will help you begin to assess what solution is right for you: What type of hardwood flooring is ideal for your home? Is there a certain style you wish to achieve? Is solid, engineered or click wood best suited to the area?

Types and Materials:

Solid Wood: Solid wood flooring is created by cutting the entire strip of wood in one whole piece directly from a tree. Solid wood floors are commonly found in older homes and usually consist of long thin strips of wood that have been nailed into a wood subfloor. Because of their durability and timeless beauty, they remain a popular choice for new installations as well. Since solid wood reacts to fluctuations in humidity, this type of flooring expands and contracts as moisture levels in your home change. Be sure you follow the proper installation methods to prevent buckling or gapping.

Suited best for installations at or above ground level; install over a wood subfloor. Thicknesses range from 5/16 to 3/4 inches; typical widths include 2-1/4 to 5 inches. Can be sanded and refinished at least once, but generally no more than 2 times for lasting value and performance. Available as either prefinished or unfinished pieces in a wide range of wood species. Can go over concrete, but proper extensive preparation and planning need to be done first.

Engineered Wood:

Engineered woods have increased in popularity due to both their affordable price and ability to handle fluctuations in humidity without shifting or changing. Engineered wood consists of several thin layers of solid wood fused together with heat, glue and pressure. Cross-ply construction alternates layers opposite one another, so each individual layer expands and contracts in different directions with little to no visible change. Because engineered wood is resistant to humidity changes, it is suited to a wider variety of installations and can even be installed over concrete slabs. Since only the top layer is visible, manufacturers can use a variety of less expensive woods to create the core layer and use more costly woods on the surface. This gives you the benefit of more luxurious materials at an affordable price.

Engineered floors can be installed on all floor levels of the house.

Can be placed directly over a concrete slab giving you more installation options.

Engineered wood floors with thick top layers can be sanded and refinished several times.

Usually come pre finished for simple, hassle-free installation that allows for immediate use.

Marble stone flooring is not a latest trend in flooring. We are using it from long time. Marble is very durable and its shining remains for long.

How to choose wooden floor

MARBLE

Specification of Marble Stone

Marbles are metamorphic rocks. This type of rock is suitable for polishing to enhance its shine. Marble stone is hard, sound, dense and homogeneous in texture with crystalline texture. It is uniform in color, free from stains, cracks, decay and weathering. The stones come in several colors. Marble stones are available at various quarry/rocks and are known by the name of quarry/rock such as Makrana Marble, Dungri Marble, Rajnager Marble, Abu white marble etc.

Specification of Marble Stone Flooring

Marble stone flooring consists of 20 mm to 25 mm thick marble slabs laid over 20 mm thick base of cement coarse sand mortar of 1:3 and jointed with white cement slurry mixed with pigment to match the shade of stone. The marble stones/slabs used in flooring or dado are cut according to the size and shapes given in drawing or to suit site dimension of the room and desired pattern. All angles and edges of marble slabs are true and square and are free from chipping. The surface is true and plain.

Raw Material for Marble Flooring

• Marble Stone

• Coarse Sand

• Ordinary Cement

• White Cement

• Pigment

• Polishing Material

Installation of Marble Stone Flooring

• Preparation of sub base: Base coat consisting of cement concrete 1:8:16, 1:5:10 or 1:4:8 should be laid on compacted earth under marble stone flooring.

• Laying out of marble stone slabs

• The base concrete or RCC slab on which marble stone slabs are laid should be thoroughly cleaned.

• The average thickness of bedding mortar under marble stone slab should be 20 mm thick and the ratio of cement mortar should be 1:3

• The sand used in mortar should be coarse sand.

• The thickness of bedding should not be less than 12 mm in any place

• The top surface of mortar (bedding) should be leveled correctly by adding fresh mortar at hollows if any.

• The mortar is allowed to harden and cement slurry shall be spread at the rate of 4.4 kg per sq. meter.

• Marble stone slab to be paved should then be lowered gently back in position and tapped with wooded mallet till it is properly bedded and leveled with adjoining slab.

• Care should be taken to match the grains of slabs.

• All stone slabs should be laid in same manner.

• After lying of each slab surplus cement on the surface of slabs should be cleaned.

• The surface of flooring as laid should be true to slopes.

• The edges of slabs already paved are filled with white cement with or without admixture to match the shade of the stone slabs

Curing Of Marble Stone Flooring

The Marble stone floor should be cured for a minimum period of seven days.

Polishing and Finishing

• The grinding may be done either by hand or by machine.

• Manual grinding should be done after two days of laying of marble flooring

• Machine grinding should commence 3-4 days after laying marble stone flooring

First Grinding

• The grinding should be done by machine with grit No. 60.

• The water should be used profusely during grinding.

• After grinding the surface should thoroughly be washed to remove all grinding mud.

• A grout of cement and pigment in the same mix and proportion apply to the surface.

• It should be allowed to dry and then cured for four days.

Second Grinding

The second grinding is done with machine fitted with fine grit blocks No120. The surface is again washed cleanly and is repaired if required.

Final Grinding

• The final grinding with machine fitted with finest grade grit blocks No. 320 should be carried out the day after second grinding.

• The grinding should be done to get the surface even, smooth without any pinholes.

• Care should be taken during final grinding that foreign matter, particles of sand etc. do not scratch the surface.

• After final grinding, whether by machine or by hand, the surface should be washed clean.

• Oxalic acid powder should be dusted over the surface at the rate of 33 gm per square meter.

• The water is then sprinkled and the surface is rubbed hard with felt or pad of woolen rags.

• Next day the floor should be wiped with a moist rag and be dried with a soft cloth and be finished cleanly.

• The floor should then be covered with oil free saw dust which is removed after completion of all construction work, such as painting, distempering, electrical work, plumbing, joinery work etc.

• After occupying area the floor should be washed cleanly with dilute oxalic acid solution, be dried and rubbed with clean cotton waste.

• In case wax polished surface is desired, wax polish is applied sparingly with soft cloth on clean and dry surface.

• The surface should be rubbed thoroughly with clean cotton waste or a polishing machine fitted with felt or jute bag bobs.

• Any surplus wax should be mopped up and rubbing is continued until the floor ceases to be sticky.

Paintings

A paint buying guide:

When you need a fast way to transform an object or a room, painting can be the best option. A vast number of colour paint options are available. As you follow along in this paint buying guide, you will learn how to buy paint, how to select the best paint to buy for your project and discover additional home improvement supplies to enhance your painting project.

Consider your project::

Before you shop for paint, consider the size, type and location of your project and how it impacts choices. Whether you are painting a small table, a room in your home or the whole exterior, each project has points to consider that will help you decide which paint to buy. For example, architectural details such as moulding’s, trims or columns should be contemplated. Considerations about which paint to buy for exterior projects are slightly different. In these cases, location, traffic and weather all play a part in selecting the best paint to buy. Think about what material you are painting, whether wood, metal, siding or sheet rock, and take note of whether the surface is untouched or if it is primed and ready.

Consider which type of paint is best::

Paint is broken into two major categories: acrylic water based paint and oil based paint. Some paints and primers are available in both types. Additionally, different paint types are formulated for specific applications. For example, high heat paint is oil based and works great for an outdoor BBQ, while lawn furniture would use a stain or rust-preventative paint. Concrete floor paints are made to handle the heavy traffic of the garage floor, and house paints are formulated to handle the effects weather has on the outside of your home. Dry erase paints work great in a child's room or playroom. The methods for applying paint also vary, and you will want to keep that in mind when shopping. Acrylic, latex water based paint advantages are: Easy to touch up Clean with soap and water Non-flammable Breathable Dry quicker Oil based paint advantages are: Longer life Sticks to more surfaces Has a smoother finish when dry (less brush or roller marks) Better at preventing bleed through.

As with any project, prudent planning and preparation goes a long way when painting. Using a pressure washer on the outside of your house or garden furniture will remove dirt and grime. Sanding to remove old, peeling paint or to smooth a surface is also very effective and helps with adhesion. Lastly, you will want to prime the surface with a quality primer. Some paints, however, have the primer already mixed in. >> Consider color and texture When considering which paint to buy, color and texture are high on the priority list. There are many pre-made color paint options available and custom colors can be mixed to your specifications or samples. Use lighter colors to add energy to a space, or use dark colors to make a room feel relaxing. Bold color combinations can give a room a vibrant feel. You can have virtually any color possible with the color matching technology available today. Texture is another feature that can added to enhance style or safety, depending on the application.

Painting tips

Decorative paints

 
 
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